ADO primary agriculture programmatic area composes two main big component of crop and livestock husbandry. Therefore, ADO focuses livestock and crop husbandry sectors differently to build the capacity of the rural poor community in Somaliland and enable rural communities sustain their livelihoods. To meet the priority agriculture needs of the beneficiary community, ADO agriculture program lies under effective three years strategic plan with well-designed, and sustainable agriculture principles run by professional staff. ADO in partnership with the ministry of agriculture and international partners of INGOs and UN agencies sought to intervene the situation.
However, ADO integrates and diffuses good agriculture practices to the rural farmer communities through farmer inputs delivery, provision of agriculture extension packages, availing extension agents in field level and connection farmer communities together to have their voice collectively.
For the past two decades ADO had been dealing with provision of support and capacity building to the farmer communities in Somaliland. The mainly utilized approach for crop sector development is currently ‘’sustainable agriculture’’. The term sustainable agriculture means “an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term:
• Satisfy human food and fiber needs
• Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends
• Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls
• Sustain the economic viability of farm operations
• Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.”
ADO deals with thousands of farmers in Somaliland whom their farming systems are different according to their geographic localities and cultural inheritance. However, these different farming systems are;
a) Rain-fed farming
b) Irrigated farming
Agriculture Approaches and Methods
To effectively increase the capacity of the farmer community in Somaliland, ADO utilizes two main approaches of:
I. Sustainable agriculture
ADO believes that sustainable agriculture provides high yields without undermining the natural systems and resources that productivity depends on. Below are the most common sustainable agriculture techniques introduced through agriculture extension packages and farmer community capacity development that employed by farmers to achieve the key goals of weed control, pest control, disease control, erosion control and high soil quality: valuable innovations within these approach are also;
• Crop Rotation
• Cover Crops
• Natural soil Enrichment
II. Conservation Agriculture
Conservation Agriculture (CA) is a Concept for resource-saving agricultural crop production that strives to achieve acceptable profits together with high and sustained production levels while Con-currently conserving the environment. CA is based on enhancing natural biological processes above and below the ground. Interventions such as mechanical soil tillage are reduced to an absolute minimum, and the use of external inputs such as agrochemicals and nutrients of mineral or organic origin are applied at an optimum level and in a way and quantity that does not interfere with, or disrupt, the biological processes.
• CA is characterized by three principles which are linked to each other namely:
• Continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance and direct seeding.
• Permanent organic soil cover.
• Diversified crop rotations in the case of annual crops or plant associations in case of perennial crops.
(CA) practices can create stable living conditions for micro and macro-organisms, providing a host of natural control mechanisms for the growth of crops, which result in significant efficiency gains. CA has proven to contribute to significant increases of crop production (40-100%) with decreasing needs for farm inputs, in particular power and energy (50-70%), time and labor (50%), fertilizer and agrochemicals (20-50%) and water (30-50%). Furthermore, in many environments, soil erosion is reduced to below the soil regeneration level or avoided altogether and water resources are restored in quality and quantity to levels that preceded putting the land under intensive agriculture practices.