30 Dec Training CAHWs Provided by ADO under EU Funded Project CRISP
Addressing animal health is vital to increase pastoral and agro-pastoral resilience and sustenance of the livelihoods. Therefore, ADO working with Development fund of Norway and European Union proposed to address gaps on animal health in Burao and Odweine districts through the formation of sustainable community-based animal health services with acknowledgement from certifying authorities under the project titled Community resilience in Somaliland and Puntland (CRISP) that focuses building the resilience of the Somaliland communities in the regions of Togdheer, Dadmadheedh and Sanaag. Under that project ADO has trained and equipped with basic necessary of animal drugs and equipment 12 CAHWs on 16th to 29th November 2020 with the help of the ministry of livestock and Fishery Development from pastorals and agro-pastoral from Beerato, Beer, Xidhxidh and Shilmaale village in Odweine and Burao as community health workers (CAHWs) that is expected to concretely increase community’ resilience on climate change impact and through improving animal health ultimately result in increase of livestock productivity without costlier inputs.
CAHWs are members of community, are actively involved in livestock keeping and live within the communities’emergency assistance.
2.0 General objectives of the training:
To provide General knowledge and skills to improve animal health and production in Pastoralists
2.1 Specific Objectives:
• To training Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) at village level and provide basic knowledge of Animal health care and treatment for fighting against common diseases that affect livestock.
• To learn CAHWS for the basic skills of disease diagnosis, control, prevention and treatment of animals.
• To increase household income and productive assets for pastoralists.
• To provide basic knowledge of drug usage, route of administration, and side effect
• . To differentiate treatment and vaccination.
• To learn more about the use of the equipment of animal health,
• Understand public health risks related Zoonotic diseases.
• Learn communication and disease reporting skills
Figure I: shows class session
3.0 Training Methodology
Training facilitators used Different methodologies in order to enhance understanding and grasping of the trainees to the learning sessions through the complying of training principals and adult education
• Presentation: it was one our fundamental method of the training and almost 50%of the class sessions were theoretical sessions through the use of flip charts, slide shows, videos and pictures
• Group discussion (GD): as to discuss topics within a limited time, thetrainees have been divided into groups that can brainstorm and produce digested feedback.
• Practical demonstrations: showing practical or by doing practical or to put the theoretical sessions into practice.
• Practical was the second important method after presentation method
• Field work: trainees together with the facilitators visited livestock pastoralist outside the training venue therefore they practiced how to treat, spray, castrate, trim and the ways to perform clinical examination parameters.
• Pre and post-assessment training test: The objective of the assessments was to provide a benchmark upon which to gauge the impact of the training on the CAHWs.
Field visit for practicing history taking and clinical examination procedures. And how to practice different modes of drug administration and their dosage
Demonstration of veterinary drugs and their route of administrations.
Pictures illustrations and storytelling.
3.1 Training Materials used
During the training program the following tools for facilitation and understanding was used:
• Note books and pens.
• Group discussions.
• Veterinary drugs for practical demonstration
• Veterinary equipment for practical demonstration include Drench gun , automatic Syringe , Hoof trimmer , syringes and sprayer
• Animal pictures
4. 0 Opening Session
The Community Based Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) was started in Odweyne at period (16-up to 29- November- 2020) By Opening of Head Ministry of Livestock in Odweyne
Dr Ahmed Aabi say his words for opening of the training and encouraged the participants to participate fully and actively in the training so as to get the maximum benefit of knowledge and skills to improve animal health and production in their village and whole in Odweyne villages.
After that Guled Ahmed Meal Officer of ADO staff say his words for opening of the training and also welcomed all the participants and thanked them for their commitment and the long way they crossed to reach this place as well as the time and effort they have devoted to attend this useful training.
The training of Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) 14-Days has been finalized with successful manner. taking three days practical session with basic health care of livestock including injection sites , usage of drugs and their dosage , practice how to treat livestock , and how to use Vet equipments .
After the opening ceremony, The Consultant briefed participants for the training objectives and the topics needed to be covered and created training rules, their expectation and objectives of the training for the 14- days training period and advised trainees to be more series, patient and collaborative during the short period of training program. The Facilitator has taken quick short oral pre-evaluation test to evaluate participant level of knowledge and understanding primary of animal health care. It is expected that the training will enhance participant knowledge of common domestic animal diseases that affect livestock, their modes of transmission and control, how to use the veterinary drugs, routes of administration, treatment and drug withdrawal periods.
5.1 Topic Covered During the Training period
This training was done according to the Somaliland’s Community Animal Health Workers training standard (The standard manual for Community Animal Health Workers training in Somaliland, first draft, in March 2013).
• Introduction of Community Animal Health and their Role within the community
• Introduction of living and non-living things
• Basic knowledge on animal Physiology.
• Basic knowledge of animal husbandry
• Importance of animal Health , feeding , breeding and housing
• Animal Restrain, types and their purposes.
• Basic animal health care and different modes of livestock diseases transmission.
• Procedure of clinical examination of sick animal including case history taking and how to differentiate disease through clinical signs.
• Common domestic diseases occurred to the livestock which effect health, economically and animal production.
• Provide basic knowledge in Veterinary drugs and their route of administration.
• Drug dosage and withdrawal period
• Difference between treatment of animal and vaccination on animal.
• Practical demonstration on how to administer drugs to sick animal.
• Bad effects of drug mishandling and miss use as well how to keep or store drugs in home.
• Importance of castration and hoof trimming in the livestock
5.2Group Discussions in the Class sessions
At the end of each class session we used to divide the trainees into three or four sub groups, providing them different tasks and questions relating to the class session and to share information and ideas relating to Livestock health and productivity. Enough time was given for discussions and presentations to evaluate their understanding of the courses and improve their participation and presentation. The outcome of each group work was presented and later discussion. The consultant evaluated the presentation of groups and their understanding of the course that they have learning during the training period. Finally, the facilitator thanks each group and adds what they have mixed for their discussions and presentations
5.3 .0 Community Animal Health Workers and their Role within the Community:
The CAHWs are members of community, are actively involved in livestock keeping and live within the communities.
CAHW’s main role which summarized below:
• To deliver basic veterinary services to remote areas in which private veterinary professionals can’t access,
• To send disease reports to the government or private veterinary professionals in a monthly or weekly basis,
• To create awareness related Zoonotic diseases, misuse of drugs, effects of Vet drugs in human being.
Qualities of Good CAHWS:
Actively involved in the community
Honest and Hard working
Knowledge of basic animal health care
5.3.1.Introduction of Living things and Non- living things
This subject will help the trainees to brainstorm the different living and non-living things and the general characteristic that the living things are sharing among them.
5.3.2 Introduction Animal husbandry skills and Management
Animal husbandry is the management and care of animals by humans including scientific feeding, breeding, housing, and health care of common domestic animals.
The trainees become familiar in good husbandry practices. This helps participants understanding that good animal’s husbandry practice tends to reduce the mortality of these animals, and therefore, the spending to cover expenses for illnesses, medications and lost production.
5.3.4 Animal Restraining, types and their purposes:
The trainees accustomed what is meant and purpose of animal restraining. The general purpose of animal restraining is to avoid any damage to the animal and the person. The facilitators introduce participation the following types of animal restraining:
Manual or mechanical restraining: this is when the animal is restrained by using hands or robes. This is the simplest and cheapest way of animal restraining, and it is oven used for small ruminants, and some un-aggressive large animals, especially when minor activities are to be performed.
Physical Restraint/Marshal yards: this is the use of physical traps/parries often called Marshall Yards, to limit some or all of an animal’s movements for the purpose of examination, collection of samples, drug administration, and therapy.
Chemical restraint: which is same physical restraining but this method the veterinary-doctors uses chemical drugs like anesthesia, to reduce animal pain and movement.
5.3.4 Animal Body(Anatomy& physiology)
The facilitator explained to the CAHWs for eleven body system and their respective functions, while participant have been shared their experience one another, then trainees got the opportunity to watch different pictures and posters of each and every individual body system. The lists of different body systems learned during the class are as following:
5.3,5 Healthy and un-healthy animals
The main objectives of this session were to familiarize trainees on the normal and abnormal animal behaviors and signs, so as to be able to difference sick and healthy animals. The participants were firstly assessed their empirical knowledge towards this topic, then they were shown different pictures and posters showing physiological signs and symptoms of both health and unhealthy animals. Facilitator was also shows participant tips that they can differentiate some signs that may mix the unhealthy symptoms of animal.
The following are some of the physiologic signs those can be diagnosed in sick animals: body posture, off feed and water, isolated, sounds, trauma, discharge from eyes, nose, or vaginal area, abnormal lumps, dull eyes, nasal discharges, bellowing, grunting/ groaning, animal acting uncomfortable, diarrhea, emaciation, dull hair coat, skin nodules.
If the animal doesn’t show any clinical signs don’t mean it is healthy since there are many different subclinical diseases those still animals can transmit to other animal or even human.
5.3.5 Procedure of clinical examination (History taking, visual appraisal, environmental observation and physical examination) for different sick animal species
History taking: participants practiced in the class on the importance and how to conduct complete history from the animal owner. Different questions were asked the owners towards animal’s condition at past time.
Visual appraisal and Environmental observation: within the class, trainees familiarized that visual appraisal is looking /observing (without touching) of the signalment (age, sex and specie of the animal), distinguishing marks, body condition, behavior/temperament, posture, gait, and the environment. And it is very important because it provides the opportunity to observe behavioral actions which are likely to miss or be obscured.
Physical Examination: is the full examination of the sick animals by touching and using aid instruments and assessing body condition, hydration status, observation, body temperature, palpation of superficial lymph nodes and the examination of mucous membranes.
During this session, the facilitators were explained to participants on the ways that can be performed all those steps chronologically so as to aid the diagnosis of the disease for successful treatment. Likewise, the participants were gained more knowledge and facilitator was asked question after class, while participants answer all questions.
Castration by Using Burdizzo
Trainees learnt the ways of castrating of animals by using Burdizzo and the importance for those techniques to have their animals. Before that, the facilitator requested from the participants to discuss the aim for the castration. Hence, the trainees were discussed and presented the reasons for castration includes
• To improve body weight through fattening of animals and carcass quality
• Reduction of aggression amongst males and the injuries associated with such aggression
• Prevention of undesired pregnancies
• To reduce the taint odor or goaty smell in the meat of male animals
Hoof trimming by using Hoof trimmer
The participant were taught the minor procedure of hoof trimming in animals , it was explained that the feet of animals kept in certain areas like soft soil or under certain management conditions can develop long hooves, therefore the animal may not graze well and thus goes down in condition. It cannot mate properly and can cause foot rot if there are other predisposing factors. Trimming should be done with the animal standing. If the animal is wild it should throw to the ground. Trimming consists of cutting off long toes and paring the bottom surface of the claws and the forward growth of the toes. If too much of the hoof is trimmed off the sensitive part of the foot may be cut into with pain, bleeding and infection may result
5.3.6 Major animal disease pathogens
During class session, Facilitator was explained participants the main causative agents of livestock diseases. This lecture helps trainees to differentiate different disease according to their causative agents and to choose the best actions against each disease, e.g. treatment (type of drug to be administered) & vaccination (type of vaccine).
5.3.7 Introduction to common local diseases
The facilitator explained the diseases, their agents, transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and their control mechanisms. During the training the following diseases has been covered one by one:-
CCPP( locally known SambabkaRiyaha)
CBPP (locally known SambabkaLoda ),
PPR (locally known Susun ) ,
FMD (locally known Cabeeb ),
Sheep & Goat Pox(locally known FuraqaAdhiga ) Camel Pox(localy known FuruqaGeela ) .
Mange (locally known Cadho),
Trypanosomiasis(locally known Dhukaan )
Helminthiasis (locally known Caal )
And Tick & tick borne diseases (locally known Hulumbe ) .
5.3.8 Zoonotic diseases
Zoonotic diseases are diseases those can be transmitted from animals to Human. The facilitators deeply explained to the participants the types of Zoonotic diseases, their causative agents, their mode of transmission, harmful effects they impose, and measures in which each disease can be prevented, treated and controlled. Participants go through each of the following Zoonotic disease:
Anthrax (Kudka )
Rift Valley Fever
Disease mode of transmission
This session the facilitator explains the different modes of diseases transmission.
Figure: Shows an example disease mode of transmission, Brucellosis
5.3.9. Introduction to the drugs and vaccines
According to the needs of the trainees, this module covers the most significant part of the training sessions as it is the part that deals the usage of drugs, drug administration, and effects of drugs, withdrawal period and the common types of veterinary drugs.
The participants learnt in a detailed manner for the most important routes of drug administration
Different types of Injections are the most frequently used method of administering drugs so they learnt different types of injections with their advantages and disadvantages and are summarized as follows:
• Subcutaneous injection
• Intramuscular injection
• and intravenous injection
Drugs can be given by mouth in several ways. They may be mixed with feed or, if soluble, added to the drinking water. Pills or boluses may be given by hand or with a balling gun. Insoluble drugs or liquids in small quantities may be administered as a drench or through a stomach tube. Drugs given by mouth must survive passage through the stomach and into the small intestine before they are absorbed. Their action is, therefore, relatively slow.
• Uses of the common veterinary drugs
During the training, the trainees learnt some of the common veterinary drugs that are available and well known in Somaliland in order to avoid misuse and the risks that can come from those drugs such as ivermectin 1% inj, oxytetracyline 5%, 10% &20% inj, albendazole syrup and tablet, sulphadimidineinj, multivitamin inj, streptomycin & penicillin inj etc. so the uses they learnt includes of the following:
• Storage requirements
some drugs may be stored at room temperature while others require a cooler temperature which is indicated on the label. Drugs that require storage at 2 to 6°C should be kept in a refrigerator. Others require storage in a cool place between 8 and 15°C. All drugs should be protected from freezing and excessive heat.
• Expiration dates
all injectable antibiotics and vaccines, many oral products and some other drugs have an expiration date stamped on the label and on the box in which the drug is packed.
• Withdrawal time
all antibacterial preparations and many other drugs have a withdrawal time. This is the amount of time that must elapse after the last dose of the drug was administered to the animal before it can be slaughtered or any of its products used for food.
This session the facilitators clarified the differences of treatment and vaccination.
Drug Dosage calculation techniques
The participants were shown dosage calculation of different drug, in regards to drug’s concentration and the animal’s live body weight.
Figure: this form shows drug dosage calculation
The side effects of drug misuse, and improper drug handling
As the training sessions progress, the facilitator explained the potential consequences of veterinary drug misuses. Participants learned that veterinary drugs can lead dangerous results and even death of livestock and human if not properly used. So that trainees were asked to continuously contact veterinary professionals and ask consultancy for unknown things so as to avoid drug misuse. Additionally, trainees were asked to mobilize livestock producers against the risks of drug misuse.
5.4.0Disease surveillance and reporting system
However, during this training, the participants were studied and understood community based disease surveillance and the flow of disease reporting system. The Somaliland’s standard disease information flows were introduced to the trainees, who typically are as following: from Animal producer– to – CAHWs– to – Private Vet. Professionals/ District Vet. Officers –to – Regional Vet. Officers –to -Epidemiology and Data Management Unit(EDMU)–to -Animal Health Department–to DG/Ministers –to – regional and international organizations concerned in disease reporting (AU-IBAR & OIE).
6.0 Expected outcomes
At the end of the training period, the Community Animal Health Workers should adapt and understand the following
• Enhanced CAHWs knowledge of common diseases that affect livestock, diagnostic skills, causes, transmission and prevention and control
• CAHWs gain basic understanding of animal vital signs and their relation to diseases.
• differentiation between health and unhealthy animals
• Gain ways to improve the animal nutrition and feeding systems.
• understand general diseases, causes, control and prevention, signs and symptoms
• Understand how to handle and care the Vet. Hand tools
• Understand the importance of drug withdrawal period (milk and meat).
• Understand diseases affecting milk and meat production.
• Understand public health risks related Zoonotic diseases.
• Learn communication and disease reporting skills.
During the training there were no major millstones and challenges.
Distribution of first starting kit
At the end of the training, ADO provided and distributed of veterinary drugs to all CAHWS (Albendazole 10%, Oxytetracyline 10%,Tylosin 10%, Pent strep 10% , Multivitamin and Cypermethrin )and equipments( Autamic syringe 30-ml, Hand Sprayer , Burdizzo , Hoof trimmer ,Drench Gun) within a branded hand bags for keeping all their kits in the field. These drugs are expected to use in the field as a first starting kits of their activities. Additionally; the CAHWS were advised to be honest and voluntary working in the pastoral community.
The tables below shows the equipment and Vet drugs as a start kit for training CAHWS:
s/no Description equipment for CAHWs HHs Unit Quantity Per individual
1. Burdizzo small small ruminant ( sheep and goat) 12 Pcs 12 1
2. Hoof trimmer for small ruminant ( sheep and goat) 12 Pcs 12 1
3. Drenching Gun 30-L 12 Pcs 12 1
4. Hand spray pumps 16-L 12 Pcs 12 1
5. Field bag for vet equipment 12 Pcs 12 1
6. Disposable syringes 10ml 12 Box 12 1
7. Re-usable Hypodermic needles (16 Gauges) 12 Box 12 1
8. Registers book 12 Pcs 12 1
9. Automatic syringes 30ml 12 Pcs 12 1
10. Disinfectant 250-ml 12 Pcs 12 1
11. Gloves 12 Box 12 1
12. Cotton 12 Roll 12 1
13. Apron (coat) 12 Pcs 12 1
S/NO Description Drugs for CAHWs HHs Unit Quantity Per individual
1. Oxytetracyline 20% injection 12 Doze 144 12
2. Tylosin 20% injection 12 Doze 72 6
3. Cypermethrine10% 1000ml(1litere) 12 pc 48 4
4. Albendazole 10% 1 liter 12 Doze 72 6
5. Ivermectin 1% 50ml 12 Doze 144 12
6. Multivitamin syrup 12 Doze 144 12
12 Doze 144 12
8. Oxytetracyline 10 Spray
12 Doze 72 6
The Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) 14-Days of training have been finalized with successful manner. 12- Community Based Animal Health Workers who was selected from Different village in Togdher and Odweyne regions including Beer, Beerato, Xidhxidh and Shilimale attended the Training, the CAHWs, have shown their interest of the training and promised to dared to reach where there is no veterinary service. The course and Training of trainees assembled and harmonized literature ideology with the indigenous knowledge of the pastoralist, which together can produce a meaningful resource that can be utilized by the nation.
ADO distribute first kit starting in all 12-trainee including Veterinary drugs (Ivermectin, Albendazole ,Oxytetracyline , Tylosin , Pent-srep and Cypermethrin) and Vet Equipment include Hand sprayer , Automatic Syringe , Hoof trimmer , Drench Gun , Burdizzo and syringes.
Extra training should be provided to the CAHWs as refreshers trainings.
Strong Linkage between the Ministry of livestock and community animal health workers should be created.
Ministry of Livestock to motivate CAHWs by providing veterinary drugs and equipment, refresher trainings.
Continuous monitoring and evaluation of 12-CAHWs in their villages in order to sustain their work for long time through joint efforts of ADO and Ministry of livestock